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Reading Comprehension 4

Fertilizer is any substance that can be added to the soil to provide chemical elements essential for plant nutrition so that the yield can be increased. Natural substances such as animal droppings, ashes from wood fires, and straw have been used as fertilizers in fields for thousands of years, and lime has been used since Romans introduced it during the Empire. It was not until the nineteenth century, however, that chemical fertilizer became widely accepted as normal agricultural practice. Today, both natural and synthetic fertilizers are available in a variety of forms.

A complete fertilizer is usually6 marked with a formula consisting of three numbers, such as 4-8-2 or 6-6-4, which designate the percentage of content of nitrogen, phosphoric acid, and potash in the order stated. Synthetic fertilizers, produced by factories, are available in either solid or liquid form. Solids, in the shape of chemical granules, are in demand because they are not only easy to store but also easy to apply. Recently, liquids have shown as increase in popularity, accounting for 20 percent of the nitrogen fertilizer used throughout the world. Formerly, powders were also used, but they were found to be less convenient than either solids or liquids.

Fertilizers have no harmful effects on the soil, the crop, or the customer as long as they are used according to recommendations based on the result of local research. Occasionally, however, farmers may use more fertilizer than necessary, in which case the plants do not need, and therefore do not absorb, the total amount of fertilizer applied to the soil. The surplus of fertilizer thus can damage not only the crop but also the animals or human beings that eat the crop. Furthermore, fertilizer that is not used in the production of a healthy plant is leached into the water table. Accumulations of chemical fertilizer in the water supply accelerate the growth of algae and, consequently, may disturb the natural cycle of life, contributing to the death of fish. Too much fertilizer on grass can cause digestive disorders in cattle and in infants who drink cow’s milk. Fertilizer must be used with great attention to responsible use or it can harm the environment.

Vocabulary :

  1. Droppings : Kotoran
  2. Empire : Kekaisaran
  3. Agricultural : Pertanian
  4. Marked : Ditandai
  5. Stated : Dinyatakan
  6. Demand : Permintaan
  7. Increase : Peningkatan
  8. Less Convenient : Kurang Nyaman
  9. Harmful : Merugikan
  10. Customer : Pelanggan
  11. Absrob : Menyerap
  12. Applied : Diterapkan
  13. Acclererate : Mempercepat
  14. Damage : Merusak
  15. Harm : Membahayakan

Ide Pokok :

  • Explaining local research and harmful effects contained in the fertilizer.
  • Explaining about the completeness of the nutrients found in natural and artificial fertilizer.

 

1. With which of the following topics in the passage primarily concerned?

A. Local research and harmful effects of fertilizer

B. Advantages and disadvantages of liquid fertilizer

C. A formula for the production of fertilizer

D. Content, form, and effects of fertilizer

 

2. The word essential in the paragraph 1 could best be replaced by which of the following?

A. Limited

B. Preferred

C. Anticipated

D. Required

 

3. Which of the following has the smallest percentage content in the formula 4-8-2?

A. Nitrogen

B. Phosphorus

C. Acid

D. Potash

 

4. What is the percentage of nitrogen in a 5-8-7 formula fertilizer?

A. 3 percent

B. 5 percent

C. 7 percent

D. 8 percent

 

5. The word designate in the paragraph 2 could best be replaced by ?

A. Modify

B. Specify

C. Limit

D. Increase

 

6. Which of the following statements about fertilizer is true?

A. Powders are more popular than ever.

B. Solids are difficult to store.

C. Liquids are increasing in popularity.

D. Chemical granules are difficult to apply.

 

7. The word they in the paragraph 2 refers to?

A. Powder

B. Solids

C. Liquids

D. Fertilizer

 

8. The word convenient in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to?

A.  Effective

B.  Plentiful

C.  Easy to use

D.  Heap to product

Answer :

  1. D. Content, form, and effects of fertilizer
  2. D. Required
  3. D. Potash
  4. B. 5 percent
  5. B. Specify
  6. C. Liquids are increasing in popularity.
  7. A. Powder
  8. C. Easy to use

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Reading Comprehension 3

Vocabulary :

1. Recent : Kemajuan

2. Manned and Unmanned : Berawak dan Tdk Berawak

3. Breakthroughs : Terobosan

4. Divers : Penyelam

5. Sluggish : Lamban

6. Severely Limited : Sangat Terbatas

7. Pressure : Tekanan

8. Undersa : Bawah Laut

9. Oceanographers : Ahli Kelautan

10. Avoid : Menghindari

11. Vulnerable : Rentan

12. Reduce : Mengurangi

13. Lowered : Diturunkan

14. Direct Observations : Pengamatan Langsung

15. Sophisticated : Canggih

16. Vantage Points : Titik Pandang

17. Submarines : Kapal Selam

18. Dive : Menyelam

19. Depths : Kedalaman

20. Cruise : Pelayaran

21. Relying More on : Lebih Mnegandalkan

22. Concerning : Menyangkut

23. Solved : Diselesaikan

Ide Pokok :

1. Explaining the technological advances Oceanographers.

ENGLISH
-Direct observation overboard with bernumpang And no passenger vehicle.

– Pengamatan langsung ke laut dengan kendaraan bernumpang Dan tidak berpenumpang.

2. Explain some of the limitations of divers and diving equipment to research scientists in the world’s oceans.

3. Oceanographer who rely more on satellites and computers for observation.

 

Ringkasan :

So, With the technological advances oceanographers Manned and Unmanned be together with breakthrough in satellite technology and computer equipment. And direct Observations on the sea floor that is done not only by divers but by deep-diving submarines in the water.

1. With which topic is the passage primarily concerned?

A. Technological advances in oceanography

B. Communication among divers

C. Direct observation of the ocean floor

D. Undersea vehicles

 

2. The word sluggish in paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to?

A. Nervous

B. Confuse

C. Slow moving

D. Very week

 

3. Divers have had problems in communicating under water because?

A. The pressure affected their speech organs

B. The vehicles they used have not been perfected

C. They did not pronounce clearly

D. The water destroyed their speech organs

 

4.This passage suggests that the successful exploration of the ocean depends upon?

A. Vehicles as well as divers

B. Radios that divers use to communicate

C. Controlling currents and the weather

D. The limitations of diving equipment

 

5. Undersea vehicles ?

A. Are too small for a man to fit inside

B. Are very slow to respond

C. Have the same limitations that divers have

D. Make direct observations of the ocean floor

 

6. The word cruise in the paragraph 1 could best be replaced by?

A. Travel at a constant speed

B. Function without problems

C. Stay in communication

D. Remain still

 

7. How is radio-equipped buoy operated?

  1. By operators inside the vehicle in the part underwater
  2. By operators outside the vehicle on a ship
  3. By operators outside the vehicle on a diving platform
  4. By operators outside the vehicle on a laboratory on shore

 

8. Which of the following are NOT shown in satellite photographs?

A. The temperature of the ocean’s surface

B. Cloud formation over the ocean

C. A model of the ocean’s movements

D. The location of sea ice

answer :

1. a. Technological advances in oceanography

2. C. Slow moving

3. a. The pressure affected their speech organs

4. a. Vehicles as well as divers

5. D. Make direct observations of the ocean floor

6. A. Travel at a constant speed

7. d. By operators outside the vehicle on a diving platform

8. c. A model of the ocean’s movements

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Reading Comprehension 2

Vocabulary

1. interference = campur tangan

2. causing = menyebabkan

3. weather = cuaca

4. consequently =. akibatnya

5. arrangements = pengaturan

6. Furthermore = selanjutnya

7. attempts = upaya

8. eventually = akhirnya

9. granules = butiran

10. longitude =bujur

11. completely = benar-benar

12. scientist = ilmuwan

13. thousands = ribuan

14. spokes =jari-jari

15. apparently = rupanya

Ide pokok :

1. propose a theory to explain sunspots

2. compare the umbra and penumbra in sunspots

3.A measure of sunspots

4. The cycle of sunspots

5. relationship to the phenomenon of magnetic field lines along the lines of longitude from the North and South Pole of the Sun

Pertayaan :

1. What is the author’s main purpose in the passage?

To propose a theory to explain sunspots
To describe the nature of sunspots
To compare the umbra and penumbra in sunspots
To argue for the existence of magnetic fields in sunspots

2. The word controversial in paragraph 1 is closet in meaning to?

A. Widely accepted

B. Open to debate

C. Just introduced

D. Very complicated

 

3. Solar particles are hurled into space by ?

A. Undetermined causes

B. Disturbances of wind

C. Small rivers on the surface of the sun

D. Changes in the Earth’s atmosphere

 

4. The word particles in paragraph 1 refer to ?

A. Gas explosions in the atmosphere

B. Light rays from the sun

C. Liquid streams on the sun

D. Small pieces of matter from the sun

 

5. How can we describe matter from the sun that enters the Earth’s atmosphere?

A. Very small

B. Very hot

C. Very bright

D. Very hard

 

6. What does the author mean by the statement Actually, the sunspots are cooler than the rest of the photosphere, which may account for their apparently darker color?

Neither sunspots nor the photosphere is hot.
Sunspots in the photosphere do not have any color.
The color of sunspots could be affected by their temperature.
The size of a sunspot affects its temperature.

7. The word they in the paragraph 2 refers to ?

A. Structure

B. Spots

C. Miles

D. Granules

 

8. The word consequently in the paragraph 2 could best be replaced by?

A. As a result

B. Nevertheless

C. Without doubt

D. In this way

 

9. In which configuration do sunspots usually occur?

A. In one spot of varying size

B. In a configuration of two spots

C. In arrangements of one hundred or more spots

D. In groups of several thousand spots

 

10. How are sunspots explained?

Sunspots appear to be related to magnetic fields on the Earth.
Sunspots may be related to magnetic fields that follow longitudinal lines on the sun.
Sunspots are explained by storms that occur on the Earth.
Sunspots have no theory or model to explain them.

11. The sunspot theory is ?

A. Not considered very important

B. Widely accepted

C. Subject to disagreement

D. Relatively new

Jawaban :

1. A. To propose a theory to explain sunspots

2. A. Widely accepted

3. D. Changes in the Earth’s atmosphere

4. A. Gas explosions in the atmosphere

5. B. Very hot

6. A. Neither sunspots nor the photosphere is hot.

7. A. Structure

8.D. In this way

9. A. In one spot of varying size

10. B. Sunspots may be related to magnetic fields that follow longitudinal lines on the sun

11. D. Relatively new

 

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Introducing My self

My name is Dina Andriani and I’m 18 years old,I was born in Tangerang,18 M   1996. Now live in Pasarkemis with family. My hobby in writing. My previous school in MA MIFTAHUL HUDA Pondiok Pesantren Tarbiyatul Mubtadiin.